Intestinal hyper-permeability, often referred to as “leaky gut,” is a condition in which the gaps between the cells that line the gut expand. These gaps allow pathogens such as bacteria or endotoxins (i.e., lipopolysaccharide, a major component of the cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria) to leak through the intestinal wall and pass directly into the bloodstream. Leaky gut is common among older adults, putting them at risk for many acute and chronic diseases. Findings from a recent study suggest that a polyphenol-rich diet reduces the risk of leaky gut in older adults.
Polyphenols are bioactive compounds present in fruits and vegetables. Evidence suggests that polyphenols influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, have beneficial effects on gut metabolism and immunity, and exert anti-inflammatory properties.
The randomized, controlled, crossover trial involved 51 adults (60 years and older) who were living in a residential care facility and had elevated zonulin, a biomarker of impaired gut barrier function. Half of the participants followed their typical diet, but they substituted some items with polyphenol-rich foods while maintaining the same caloric and nutrient intake for eight weeks. The other half consumed their normal diet with no substitutions. After eight weeks, the two groups switched to the opposite diet. Participants underwent physical exams before, during, and after the study and provided blood and fecal samples for analysis.
The polyphenol-rich foods included berries, blood oranges (and their juice), pomegranate juice, green tea, apples, and dark chocolate. On average, participants who ate the polyphenol-rich diet consumed 1391 milligrams of polyphenols per day, while those who ate a typical diet consumed only 812 milligrams of polyphenols per day. The study investigators noted that participants on the polyphenol-rich diet had higher levels of beneficial gut bacteria than those on the typical diet. They also noted that metabolites from cocoa and green tea polyphenols were associated with having higher levels of butyrate (a short-chain fatty acid that benefits gut health) and lower levels of zonulin. These changes improved overall gut health in the study participants, but the participants' age, baseline zonulin levels, and numbers of beneficial gut bacteria, especially those of the Porphyromonadaceae family, influenced the extent of benefit.
These findings suggest that polyphenol-rich foods improve gut health and reduce the risk of leaky gut in older adults. They also underscore the importance of developing dietary habits that promote consumption of polyphenol-rich foods throughout the lifespan. For an easy way to get more polyphenols in your diet, try this polyphenol-rich smoothie.