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From the publication:
CD [circadian desynchrony] was characterized by changed and decreased rhythmic locomotor activity and reduced blood testosterone. In the Leydig cells changed transcription of the clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Cry1 and Reverba/b increased while Per1/2 reversed phase) was detected. This was followed by reduced transcription of genes (Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1/2) primarily involved in mitosteroidogenesis. In parallel, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψi) and ATP production declined losing their characteristic oscillatory pattern. Also, the main markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (Ppargc1a, Nrf1, Tfam, Cytc), fusion (Mfn2), and mitophagy (Pink1 and Tfeb) were disturbed. Collectively, CD [circadian desynchrony] targets mitochondria in Leydig cells by reducing mitosteroidogenesis, mitoenergetics, and disturbing mitochondrial dynamics. These changes contribute to testosterone decline compromising androgen-dependent functions, including reproduction.