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Compositional oscillations of the gut microbiome are essential for normal peripheral circadian rhythms, both of which are disrupted in diet-induced obesity (DIO). Although time-restricted feeding (TRF) maintains circadian synchrony and protects against DIO, its impact on the dynamics of the cecal gut microbiome is modest. Thus, other regions of the gut, particularly the ileum, the nexus for incretin and bile acid signaling, may play an important role in entraining peripheral circadian rhythms. We demonstrate the effect of diet and feeding rhythms on the ileal microbiome composition and transcriptome in mice. The dynamic rhythms of ileal microbiome composition and transcriptome are dampened in DIO. TRF partially restores diurnal rhythms of the ileal microbiome and transcriptome, increases GLP-1 release, and alters the ileal bile acid pool and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling, which could explain how TRF exerts its metabolic benefits. Finally, we provide a web resource for exploration of ileal microbiome and transcriptome circadian data.

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