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Fathers passed on exercise-related traits to their offspring including improved cognition, increased neurogenesis, and enhanced mitochondrial activity. These changes were passed down because of specific gene changes in the fathers’ sperm (animal study).

These exercise-induced changes in the brain were passed on to offspring through microRNAs which help regulate gene expression. This study showed that paternal physical activity is a direct factor driving the offspring’s brain physiology and cognitive behavior.

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