From the article:
It has been known for some time that schizophrenia is more common among people born in the winter and spring months, as well as in people born following influenza epidemics. Recent studies suggest that if a woman suffers even one respiratory infection during her second trimester, her offspring’s risk of schizophrenia rises by three to seven times.
To prove this, they triggered an artificial immune response in pregnant mice–giving them a faux case of the flu. The trigger they used was a snippet of double-stranded RNA called poly(I:C), which fools the immune system into thinking there has been an infection by an RNA virus.
A single, mid-gestation injection of poly(I:C) creates a strong immune response in a pregnant mouse. When her offspring reach adulthood, they display behavioral and tissue abnormalities similar to those seen in schizophrenia in humans.
Though there might be some disagreement over what it means for a mouse to be schizophrenic, these abnormalities are generally marked by inappropriateness of response and difficulty in coping.
The team tried injecting the pregnant mice with individual cytokines, rather than with poly(I:C). It turned out that after a single dose of a specific cytokine known as interleukin-6 (or IL-6), a mouse would give birth to offspring who, at maturity, exhibited the familiar schizophrenia- and autism-like behaviors.
To confirm the role of IL-6, Steve Smith, the lead researcher, gave fake colds (poly(I:C)) to two groups of pregnant, IL-6-free mice. One group had received anti-IL-6 antibodies which blocked IL-6; the other consisted of so-called IL-6 knockout mice (mice whose genetic makeup prevents them from synthesizing IL-6). In both groups, offspring grew up normal, showing that IL-6 is necessary for the maternal poly(I:C) treatment to alter fetal brain development and subsequent behavior in the offspring.