A small study found that 4 nights of sleep restriction (5hrs sleep/night) resulted in decreased satiety after a calorically dense meal and altered lipid metabolism in healthy people. Catch up sleep one night only helped a little.
This was a very small study that needs to be repeated. The preliminary results found that four consecutive nights of 5 hours of sleep per night changed lipid metabolism in healthy individuals. Lipids were cleared from the bloodstream faster after a meal but they were stored in adipose tissue. This could partially explain why people did not feel satiated after a calorically dense meal.
Other studies have shown that sleep restriction also alters hormones that regulate satiety. Several studies have also shown that sleep restriction disrupts glucose metabolism. Many mechanisms may be at play.
One night of catch up sleep led to some improvements but satiety and lipid metabolism were still disrupted.