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    Wow FP, this is even more bizarre than the Ginger Exosome-like Nanoparticles paper I posted: linked text The Ginger ELNs protect mice from DSS-induced colitis through interactions with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Ginger is a root and so it would be expected that it would communicate with bacteria. But Grape ELNs do this directly?

    …we show that the cells targeted by grape exosome-like nanoparticles (GELNs) are intestinal stem cells whose responses underlie the GELN-mediated intestinal tissue remodeling and protection against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis.

    Why does a plant do this?!?