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Despite a lack of consensus on a specific type of beverage being beneficial to the heart, mounting evidence suggests that ethanol and polyphenols within wine can synergistically confer benefits against chronic cardiovascular diseases, mostly ischemic heart disease (IHD). The polyphenols in red wine can be divided into 2 important groups, flavonoids and nonflavonoids, that together can decrease platelet aggregation, improve fibrinolysis, increase HDL cholesterol, and promote NO release. Discrepancies remain for the definition of a standard drink, with the WHO definition of 10 g not adopted internationally. A light-to-moderate intake is considered cardioprotective by epidemiological and experimental investigations after observations of an inverse correlation for IHD.

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