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Humans with a polymorphism that makes more of the foxo3 gene have a 2.7-fold increased chance of being a centenarian (that is, living to be at least 100 years old). The reason why having more foxo3 is associated with longevity is because it turns on a whole host of genes that are involved in stress resistance making you more resilient to the damage associated with aging that occurs every day. One more reason to eat your salmon!

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    Hi rhonda,

    I have read that Astaxanthin can be an endurance enhancer, but also decreases Nitric Oxide production. I thought NO is a performance enhancer, so I am confused. I take Beet Root before my races (cycling), and want to add Astaxanthin due to the increase it provides to Foxo3, but would taking it prevent the benefits Im getting from the Beet Root?

    Thank you for all you do, from a new fan.

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      There is a pretty large variability of astaxanthin content in salmon (and other fish).

      For example atlantic salmon has been reported to contain 6-8mg/kg of astaxanthin, where as (wild) ‘Sockeye’ salmon contains 26-38mg/kg of astaxanthin. Other high concentration sources include ‘Coho’ and ‘Rainbow Trout’ with >20mg/kg [1, see Table 1].

      Thus choosing sockeye or rainbow trout would allow you to get a therapeutic dose (3-4mg) of astaxanthin with as little with as little as 110-160g of fish. Care still needs to be taken when choosing the source of your fish given risks of PCB contamination and mercury (depending on where the fish originated from, if it was farmed etc…).

      This is of course separate from the whole potential concern of fish (specifically the high choline concentrations) and TMAO production, which is gut biome dependent. Paradoxically the fat in the oily fish has been shown to lessen some of the adverse effects of TMAO [2]. There is also evidence that omnivores or vegetarians / vegans with a higher adherence to the mediterranean diet had lower urinary TMAO levels [3]. As if anyone needed another reason to eat vegetables if you do choose to consume fish (or meat).

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        Hi Rhonda,

        My concern about axtaxanthin is that, a natural inhibitor of enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, it reduces DHT. DHT has a number of health benefits including maintaining healthy male development, sexual function, memory etc.

        What are your thoughts on this Rhonda? Your input would be very useful as part of my decision to take this substance or abstain from it.

        Many thanks!


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          Hells Yeah this is awesome. Tim Ferriss has also stated that he takes Astaxanthin for its ability to act as sun screen. I would rather take Astaxanthin than put on sunscreen myself :D

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