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From the publication:
When epidemiological and interventional studies are considered collectively, sleep loss and lower sleep duration are associated with lower morning, afternoon and 24-h testosterone; as well as higher afternoon, but not morning or 24-h cortisol. These reciprocal changes imbalances anabolic-catabolic signaling because testosterone and cortisol are respectively the main anabolic and catabolic signals in man. Fixing testosterone-cortisol balance by means of a novel dual-hormone clamp mitigates the induction of insulin resistance by sleep restriction and provided the first proof-of-concept that the metabolic harm from sleep loss can be ameliorated by approaches that do not require sleeping more. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with lower testosterone, even after controlling for age and obesity whereas the conclusion that continuous positive airway pressure therapy has no effect on testosterone is premature because available studies are underpowered and better-quality studies suggest otherwise. High dose testosterone therapy induces OSA [obstructive sleep apnea], but more physiological dosing may not; and this effect may be transient or may dissipate with longer term therapy.