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People who were conceived in a cold vs warm environment had enhanced brown adipose tissue activity leading to better adaptation to overnutrition and cold stress. This phenotype appears to be paternally transmitted via epigenetic changes in sperm cells.

The retrospective study involved over 8,000 participants and found that those conceived in a cold environment had more brown fat, which is more metabolically active than while fat and is associated with reduced weight gain. This study also confirmed in mice that cold exposure of in male mice results in these metabolic alterations that are transmitted paternally to the offspring via epigenetic changes in sperm cells.

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