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Several studies have identified a the gut-brain the relationship is that is bidirectional such that changes in the gut microbiome can affect behavior, and behavioral changes (ie. psychological stress) can affect the gut flora. There are several proposed mechanisms including immune system modulation (ie. inflammation) and changes in brain neurotransmitters via vagal nerve stimulation. More studies still need to confirm the efficacy of probiotics for the treatment of anxiety but results look promising.